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73 of the Constitution of the USSR) and the RSFSR (art. They have their own constitutions, higher organs of power (supreme soviets), and governments (councils of ministers). Kievan Rus’ was the center for the formation of the old Russian nationality; it was the common historical motherland of the Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian peoples. Here, research is carried out with the aid of the archives of oblast and krai committees of the CPSU. U istokov sovetskoi istoricheskoi nauki: Podgotovka kadrov istorikov-marksistov v 1917–29 gg. The economic thought of the first quarter of the 18th century was strikingly expressed in I. Po-soshkov’s On Poverty and Wealth (1724, published 1842), which viewed the development of industry and trade as the most important condition for the prosperity of the state and the people. Three currents contended: the reactionary-conservative current of E. During the 1960’s and early 1970’s, methods of mathematical economics were widely employed in economics and in the management of the national economy. Each autonomous republic is represented in the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR by one of the deputy chairmen of the Presidium. The spread of feudal relations was accompanied by the exacerbation of the class struggle; for example, there were uprisings in Kiev in 1068–, and movements of the smerdy arose in the Rostov-Suzdal’ Land and Beloozero in 10. Essays have been published on the history of the party organizations of the autonomous republics and many oblasts. Pososhkov considered it expedient to aid Russian merchants in their trade with foreigners and to export from Russia not raw materials but rather finished goods. Economists of the Russian Federation did a great deal of work on the distribution of productive forces throughout the country’s economic regions, the overall development of productive forces, the planning of the national economy, agrarian theory, and the economics of agriculture. However, the Russian people are not joined together in any separate national organization but rather are represented by the RSFSR itself. The flowering of Kievan Rus’ was due to the achievements of the princes Vladimir Sviatoslavich, who ruled from about 980 to 1015, and Iaroslav the Wise, who ruled from 1019 to 1054. Research in the history of the CPSU carried on in the RSFSR by the leading institution for party history in the country, the Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the Central Committee of the CPSU, by the institute’s Moscow and Leningrad branches, and by subdepartments of the history of the CPSU at higher educational institutions. Oktiabr’skaia revoliutsiia i istoricheskaia nauka v Rossii (1917–1923 gg.) Moscow, 1968. The main problems of economic thought in Russia in the late 16th century and in the 17th century included the limitation of boyar and patrimonial land tenure, the protection of pomest’e (fief) land tenure, the development of manufacture production, and the expansion of the country’s domestic and foreign trade. His works contained opinions on the problems of monetary circulation, prices, credit, and profits. Karamzin, and others, who favored the preservation of the sociopolitical conditions that prevailed in Russia; the liberal current of M. The Decembrists were concerned with a broad range of economic issues, including the abolition of serfdom, agrarian issues, the development of industry and trade, and the reorganization of the financial system. The tasks of economic science in the RSFSR, like those of Soviet economics generally, are defined by the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU of 1967 On Measures for the Further Development of Social Sciences and the Enhancement of Their Role in Communist Construction and the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU of Dec. Petrazhitskii’s psychological theory of law exerted a profound influence on the development of legal thought in many countries. Gradovskii, who used the comparative method as the basis for the first general course of state law in European literature, and Korkunov, who wrote a two-volume course of Russian state law. The ASSR’s are national soviet socialist states that exercise state power on questions not under the jurisdiction of the USSR (art. Under Iaroslav was initiated the compilation of the Russkaia Pravda, which was a collection of early feudal legal standards consolidating the power of the state and, subsequently, of the boyar landowners over the exploited population of the country. A large contribution to the development of historical knowledge was made by M. Kovalevskii, whose works on the history of the primitive communal system were used by F. In the second half of the 19th and in the early 20th century, bourgeois historiography achieved notable success in the study of the history of the Slavs (works of F. In addition to general topics of party history, topics that are treated for the most part by the aforementioned institutions, the history of local party organizations is also studied. Peter I carried out an economic policy that promoted the strengthening of absolutism, the development of trade and home industry, and the strengthening of the state’s finances at the expense of the peasantry. In the first half of the 19th century, ideologists of the dvorianstvo differed on questions of Russia’s future economic development. 1, 1971, On the Work of the Party Organization of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In the area of the history of political doctrines, important contributions were made by Novgorodtsev and also by B. Chicherin, who between 18 published the extensive, five-part History of Political Doctrines.
The Council of Ministers of the RSFSR coordinates and directs the work of the union-republic and republic ministries and of state committees of the Union republic, and other bodies under its jurisdiction. In a battle at the Kalka River in 1223, the Mongol-Tatars defeated the southern Russian princes, and in 1236 they began their invasion of Eastern Europe. In 1237 they delivered a devastating blow to the Riazan’ Land. The Supreme Soviet heads the entire system of state bodies of the RSFSR, has full power in the republic, and exercises all rights given to the RSFSR by its constitution. The principality of Vladimir-Suzdal’ became a strong political force under Andrei and his successor Vsevolod Bol’shoe Gnezdo, who ruled from 1176 to 1212. The first legal works in Russia date to the era of the Kievan state. In the preparation of the Judicial Reform of 1864, S. Za-rudnyi served as the chief author of the statutes; the statutes attest to the high level of legal science.